Transcarpathia (Carpathian Ukraine, Carpathian Ruthenia) — a historical and geographical region in the south-western part of Ukraine, in Central Europe, occupies the south side of the road of the Carpathians and the adjacent part of the lowlands, the situation in the basin. Tisa. Roughly coincides with the territory of modern Zakarpattia region.
The total area of 12,800 square kilometers of the edge Transcarpathia has 13 districts, 10 cities, 28 towns, 561 villages. The regional center is the city of Uzhgorod, cities of regional subordination — Mukachevo, Berehovo, Hust, and the district — Svalyava, Irshava, Tyachiv, grapes, Rakhov, Chop, Volovets, Mezhgorye Perechin, Great Bereznyi.
Transcarpathia occupies 2.1% of the territory of Ukraine; most cargo space of Ukraine is great Bereznyi and Rakhov (43 thunderstorm days per year); snowiest place in Ukraine — Russian Wet (steady snow cover is here for 116 days a year); the highest mountain of Ukraine — Goverla (2061 m.); large mountain lake Synevir Ukraine (area of 7000 square meters at an altitude of 989 m); the most high-traffic artery Ukraine — avtoshosse on Yablunetskom Pass at an altitude of 931 m; the longest railway tunnel in Ukraine — Shcherbin-Sianky that is 908 m; Deep hospital in Ukraine Solotvino (at a depth of 300 m); the northernmost area of the world where tea is grown — Mountain Red Hill, near Mukachevo; the geographical center of continental Europe is near the village. Business Rahovsky area (48 ° 30 ‘. The latitude and 23 ° 23’. Longitude).
Most of the territory is occupied by mountains (the highest point is the peak Goverla — 2061 m., And the lowest in the village Russian Geevtsy Uzhgorod district — 101 m. Above sea level). The Carpathian Mountains are aged 1200000000 years. The highest mountains after Goverly: Brebeneskul — 2035 m., Pop Ivan — 2022 m., Petros — 2020 m., Gutin-Temnatik — 2017 m., Ribs — 2007 m., Other — less than 2 thousand.
The longest river in Transcarpathia — Tisa. Its length in the range of 223 km edge. In addition to the Tisza river flow three. (Oh, Latoritsa, Borzhava). All rivers, creeks and streams in the region 9429, the lakes — 137, of which water bodies (lakes permanent) — 32. The biggest lake of Transcarpathia — Sinevir formed 10,000 years ago at the height of 989 m. The area of 7 hectares, with a depth of 27 m. The highest mountain waterfall — Vojvodina, and the highest — Trofanets.
The total length of the borders of Transcarpathia is 460 km (33.4 km with Poland, and Slovakia — 98.5 km, with Hungary -130 km, Romania — 205.4 km). In the north and north-east of Transcarpathia is bordered with Lviv (85 km) and Ivano-Frankivsk region (180 km).
Still preserved in Transcarpathia 12 medieval castles, among which Uzhgorod, Mukachevo, Nevitsky, others in ruins and debris. At present, the province has more than 30 monasteries, among which are the oldest Mukachevo, Uholka Dragovsky, Imstichivsky, Boronyavsky, Malobereznyanskom, all the rest with the XX century. Still preserved in Transcarpathia noble palaces Schonborn (Carpathians), moving (Vinogradov), Long (Long), Rakoczy (Mukachevo), Druget (Uzhgorod Highlanders), Betleni (shore), Ploteni (V. Lazy Uzhhorod district) .
Transcarpathia is rich in its history. In the region there are 1817 monuments of history, 496 — Archaeology, 48 -Iskusstvo. ancient sites of primitive man in Central and Eastern Europe is in the Queen Vinogradovskiy area and dates back to about 1 million. 100 thousand. years.
Extremely important for our area is the development of rural tourism. The attractiveness of this type of tourism is more accessible cost. It is advantageous for the peasants, who for a fee will be happy tourists comfortable they will be placed, provide a variety of services. In Transcarpathia has a long tradition, and the opportunity to engage in rural tourism on the basis of the rural house-year-round. Today, 95% of settlements edge of this rural settlements, which are home to 70% naselennya.V area there are about 600 most tourist routes, which provide the development of rural tourism, of which approximately 400 are certified. Carpathians again become popular in our country and abroad. For the first time in the New Year and Christmas holidays failed to place in the available material on the basis of all those wishing to relax. Thanks for RGANIZATION youth and family tours (sports, ecotourism, adventure, religious, conference tourism, educational, thematic, personal, etc.) on a Zakarpatti.Vikoristannya to accommodate eco-tourists existing tourist facilities, as well as private housing, activation of natural health factors at attractive landscapes, attractive historical and architectural objects, which is rich in the area. Inexpensive, effective and accessible tourist infrastructure of rural tourism in the Carpathians. In Transcarpathia is developing so-called elite recreation. In remote, but very colorful and unique locations in the region to create new tourist facilities that can develop in conjunction with the development of hunting, fishing and other related industries.
There is a tendency to intefikatsiyu tourism. In this regard, a good prospect is planned in the development of a ski holiday. There are unique and rare conditions for our mining and rural tourism. Today we all understand and that our tourists and holidaymakers are mainly located in the East. Provided that the West is almost built «filtration border» with all actively developing relations with the countries of the CIS and Russian Federatsieyu.Govoryachy primarily on domestic tourism, it should be noted on the special role and responsibility for the development of protected areas. Our biosphere reserves, national and regional landscape parks occupy more than 130,000 hectares. Every year they are visited by about 3 00000 people. Nevertheless, the development of tourism here while doing enough, and this should be a major focus of their activities. This practice operates worldwide. So it must be with us. An example is the work Synevyrska National Park. In the next two years, protected areas have become the main base for the development of walking and other areas turizmu.Perevagoyu rural tourism in the Carpathian region is that in Transcarpathia rich tourism potential, Transcarpathian region is recognized as the most promising recreational area (health resort) in Europe, where possible all year round (off-season ) services to tourists, the area is located at the junction of the 5 countries in the region have 8 castles, a large number of ancient church cathedrals and churches, monasteries and ancient cemeteries (Christian and Jewish), about 60% of the territory is covered with beautiful forests and mountains in the including alpine meadows (meadows) are unique nature reserves «Stuzhytsya», «Carpathian Biosphere Reserve», «Sinevir», developed infrastructure of roads and railways, through Transcarpathia will be held in five transport corridor Trieste — Ljubljana — Budapest — Chop with an entire infrastructure: hotel, camping, shops, petrol stations, service stations — all you need to tourists. Prior to that corridor linked motels, apartments, and camps, as well as use the large number of mineral springs, wealth of folklore, carpet weaving, woodcarving, pottery, art, embroidery and other live very friendly lyudi.Asortiment rural tourism services, which provides the organization through its employees: provide excellent meals, excursions to choose from (sports, ecotourism, adventure, religious, conference tourism).
One of the most promising types of tourism in the Carpathians have transit tourism, which created roadside service highways, developed network of motels, bistros, conditions for cognitive trailering along major highways and tourist infrastructure in areas of the national network of international transport corridors and main highways . No less important is the specific border tourism (tourism neighbor). The features of cross-border tourism is to carry out border neutral territory Neighbourhood Days, Days of the region, Days of national reconciliation, which reinforce the established contacts. A new trend in the region has become a regional tourism (tourism all regions), ie travel vosmoma all countries of the Carpathians.
Most tourists in Transcarpathia choose short-term tourism, it can be trips with the whole family, a group of friends or co-workers, then, for example, a romantic getaway with a loved one, to witness the bright event, festival or just wander around the city, enjoying the new species and inaction. Many people choose and Transcarpathian weekend tourism (tourism weekend) when the duration of the trip does not exceed 3 days, and is an official public holiday calendar or weekends, and especially picky travelers to buy services — night hiking, allowing evaluation of other unique, indescribable atmosphere because Transcarpathian city throws off the vibrant city and turn on the lights lit myriad houses, streets, churches, and even night visits to castles and palaces Uzhgorodschini and Mukachevschiny.
In tourism taken to distinguish between the four seasons of tourism activity:
Peak season — the period most favorable to organize recreational activities of people showing the highest density of tourists and the most comfortable conditions for recreation. In Transcarpathia is the period of Christmas and New Year’s holidays in the winter and spring cherry blossoms.
High season — the period of greatest economic activity in the tourist market, the duration of the highest rates in the tourism product and services. In Transcarpathia is in January for ski areas, and in July and August for balneological institutions.
Low season — a season of decline in business activity in the tourist market, which is characterized by the lowest price for tourist products and services. In Transcarpathia is April and September.
Season «dead» — the period of maximum unfavorable for the organization of recreational activities (eg, uncomfortable weather conditions). In Transcarpathia is March and November.
Summer tourism (green tourism), the most popular localities for summer holidays in the region recognized riverine and lacustrine zones: grandfathers Tereblya, tract Vojvodina Andreevka, beach areas on the Tisza, already, and Latoritsa Borzhava, Kolochava. In terms of the number of sunny days (about 2000 hours. In the year of the plain and low-side and 1600 h. — In middle) Transcarpathian region is second only to the southern regions of Ukraine.
Winter tourism (tourism white) popular during the Christmas and New Year holidays, in particular the area is visited Dragobrat, Color, Pylypets, Podobovets bruises. The most favorable areas for winter sports are mountainous areas, where the duration of occurrence of snow is 5-6 months, and its thickness is 10-35 cm. This makes it possible to generate a number of centers of winter recreation and sports. Winter tourism in the Carpathians makes it possible to take advantage of a significant number of subspecies of sports tourism — skiing and slalom, snowboarding and snow tubing, skating and curling, as well as enjoy a winter tourist zones dip in the thermal KUPEL Coast and Koscina outdoors. Results of the analysis of geo-ecological characteristics of the study area allowed to identify possible accommodations ski fields and proleganiya axes ski rope transport all been allocated 7 ski areas, which can accommodate 16 chairlifts, 17 tugboats and 2 Gondola, total capacity of more than 29 thousand . person / hour.
In addition to conventional commercial tourism in the Carpathians and developing social tourism subsidized from the state budget for social needs; to support people with low income to realize their right to rest and leisure to ensure each and every member of society through involvement in tourism people with low incomes.
Recently, Perechyn, Volovets, Uzhgorod and Mukachevo areas of developing tourism incentive (incentive tourism) and corporate tourism, organized by companies and other business entities for their employees or partners as a reward for high performance results. This is primarily due to many ethnic groups, their multicultural and tolerant of different religions that coexist in Transcarpathia. During promotional tours our land workers tourism organizations point out that most of them are attracted by the variety of ethnic groups in the region, gastronomy, geoturistichni routes and festival movement.
According to the degree of organization in the field of developing more organized tourism, primarily due to the fact that the tourism industry experts edges have been developed and are tourism products, so since independence in developed and created themed tourist routes, namely: «Transcarpathian tourist path «(the concept of eco-tourist hiking routes with a total length of about 380 km.),» Zakarpattia gastronomic tourist path «(representing the culinary excellence and flavoring scale of nine national cuisines of the peoples living in Transcarpathia),» Transcarpathian tourist wine route «(tradition is Transcarpathian home wine Country), the military way «Carpatho-Ukraine» (timed to coincide with the 70th anniversary of the proclamation of the Carpatho-Ukraine), military tourist route «Line Arpad» tourist route «Hutsul trails» tourist routes «Mineral way», «Transcarpathian hydrochloric way» theme routes — «Sweet way», «Honey path», «Road Carpathian rebels», «Castles of Transcarpathia», «Palaces of Transcarpathia,» «Wooden Churches of Transcarpathia», «ancient stone temples of Transcarpathia», «Monasteries of Transcarpathia», currently in area developed about 110 tourist routes.
At the beginning of the XXI century has become more active independent tourism (amateur tourism, wild tourism) as a form of informal tourism where tourists choose their area of travel in the Carpathians, and generally do not have a well-developed plan and program of the campaign, relying on their own efforts and favorable conditions especially it is popular in Transcarpathia during the summer holidays or vacations. For children’s tourism area offers summer camps for children, recreation and unique children’s sanatorium in Uzhgorod district, just consumers of tourism school (pedagogical tourism, great tourism, tourism of circle) can meet their needs in the local history tours and various animations, but the youth tourism in Transcarpathia above all — themed trips associated with the routes of the day off; observation and thematic excursions at the festival, a variety of events and attractions. It should be noted that the socio-demographic context of the fastest growing in the Carpathians family vacation, it directed the further development of consumer services, catering, creating a broad network of children’s and recreational facilities, including tourism. Interesting know-how in the time of independence is gender-sensitive tourism, so in some recreational establishments Transcarpathian region number appears only for women, besides one of the travel agencies Uzhgorod offers exclusive tours for single or divorced people to gain new friends, expanding the circle of friends .
It is important to note that the first Transcarpathian region in Ukraine where he actively promoted tourism for people with disabilities (Braille tourism, tourism for the deaf, audio tours, tourism for people with disabilities properties), in particular in Uzhgorod was made the first city guide in Ukraine Braille for the visually impaired, the conditions for bezbarernogo living in two dozen institutions of the region, as well as held the traditional annual social festival for people with limited properties.
Another of the species has received a lot of supporters in Transcarpathia became Club (hobby tourism, party-tourism) tourism that brings people together with common occupation, interests and hobbies, the most popular sites of this type of steel Uzhgorod, N.Selische, Kolochava, Beregove, Rakhov.
During the years of independence the dynamics of the emergence of new species in the Carpathians has grown steadily, so we can identify the following examples:
Hiking (trekking tourism, tripping, backpackers) is the most common type of sports tourism in the region, whose main purpose is to overcome a group of tourists to the area to route the departure place to the place of arrival for a specified period of time.